rsync

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rsync命令是一个远程数据同步工具,可快速同步多台主机间的文件。rsync只传送两个文件的不同部分,因此速度相当快。

安装

yum install rsync -y

help

rsync is a file transfer program capable of efficient remote update
via a fast differencing algorithm.

Usage: rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... DEST
  or   rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... [USER@]HOST:DEST
  or   rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... [USER@]HOST::DEST
  or   rsync [OPTION]... SRC [SRC]... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/DEST
  or   rsync [OPTION]... [USER@]HOST:SRC [DEST]
  or   rsync [OPTION]... [USER@]HOST::SRC [DEST]
  or   rsync [OPTION]... rsync://[USER@]HOST[:PORT]/SRC [DEST]
The ':' usages connect via remote shell, while '::' & 'rsync://' usages connect
to an rsync daemon, and require SRC or DEST to start with a module name.

Options
 -v, --verbose               increase verbosity
     --info=FLAGS            fine-grained informational verbosity
     --debug=FLAGS           fine-grained debug verbosity
     --msgs2stderr           special output handling for debugging
 -q, --quiet                 suppress non-error messages
     --no-motd               suppress daemon-mode MOTD (see manpage caveat)
 -c, --checksum              skip based on checksum, not mod-time & size
 -a, --archive               archive mode; equals -rlptgoD (no -H,-A,-X)
     --no-OPTION             turn off an implied OPTION (e.g. --no-D)
 -r, --recursive             recurse into directories
 -R, --relative              use relative path names
     --no-implied-dirs       don't send implied dirs with --relative
 -b, --backup                make backups (see --suffix & --backup-dir)
     --backup-dir=DIR        make backups into hierarchy based in DIR
     --suffix=SUFFIX         set backup suffix (default ~ w/o --backup-dir)
 -u, --update                skip files that are newer on the receiver
     --inplace               update destination files in-place (SEE MAN PAGE)
     --append                append data onto shorter files
     --append-verify         like --append, but with old data in file checksum
 -d, --dirs                  transfer directories without recursing
 -l, --links                 copy symlinks as symlinks
 -L, --copy-links            transform symlink into referent file/dir
     --copy-unsafe-links     only "unsafe" symlinks are transformed
     --safe-links            ignore symlinks that point outside the source tree
     --munge-links           munge symlinks to make them safer (but unusable)
 -k, --copy-dirlinks         transform symlink to a dir into referent dir
 -K, --keep-dirlinks         treat symlinked dir on receiver as dir
 -H, --hard-links            preserve hard links
 -p, --perms                 preserve permissions
 -E, --executability         preserve the file's executability
     --chmod=CHMOD           affect file and/or directory permissions
 -A, --acls                  preserve ACLs (implies --perms)
 -X, --xattrs                preserve extended attributes
 -o, --owner                 preserve owner (super-user only)
 -g, --group                 preserve group
     --devices               preserve device files (super-user only)
     --copy-devices          copy device contents as regular file
     --specials              preserve special files
 -D                          same as --devices --specials
 -t, --times                 preserve modification times
 -O, --omit-dir-times        omit directories from --times
 -J, --omit-link-times       omit symlinks from --times
     --super                 receiver attempts super-user activities
     --fake-super            store/recover privileged attrs using xattrs
 -S, --sparse                handle sparse files efficiently
     --preallocate           allocate dest files before writing them
 -n, --dry-run               perform a trial run with no changes made
 -W, --whole-file            copy files whole (without delta-xfer algorithm)
 -x, --one-file-system       don't cross filesystem boundaries
 -B, --block-size=SIZE       force a fixed checksum block-size
 -e, --rsh=COMMAND           specify the remote shell to use
     --rsync-path=PROGRAM    specify the rsync to run on the remote machine
     --existing              skip creating new files on receiver
     --ignore-existing       skip updating files that already exist on receiver
     --remove-source-files   sender removes synchronized files (non-dirs)
     --del                   an alias for --delete-during
     --delete                delete extraneous files from destination dirs
     --delete-before         receiver deletes before transfer, not during
     --delete-during         receiver deletes during the transfer
     --delete-delay          find deletions during, delete after
     --delete-after          receiver deletes after transfer, not during
     --delete-excluded       also delete excluded files from destination dirs
     --ignore-missing-args   ignore missing source args without error
     --delete-missing-args   delete missing source args from destination
     --ignore-errors         delete even if there are I/O errors
     --force                 force deletion of directories even if not empty
     --max-delete=NUM        don't delete more than NUM files
     --max-size=SIZE         don't transfer any file larger than SIZE
     --min-size=SIZE         don't transfer any file smaller than SIZE
     --partial               keep partially transferred files
     --partial-dir=DIR       put a partially transferred file into DIR
     --delay-updates         put all updated files into place at transfer's end
 -m, --prune-empty-dirs      prune empty directory chains from the file-list
     --numeric-ids           don't map uid/gid values by user/group name
     --usermap=STRING        custom username mapping
     --groupmap=STRING       custom groupname mapping
     --chown=USER:GROUP      simple username/groupname mapping
     --timeout=SECONDS       set I/O timeout in seconds
     --contimeout=SECONDS    set daemon connection timeout in seconds
 -I, --ignore-times          don't skip files that match in size and mod-time
 -M, --remote-option=OPTION  send OPTION to the remote side only
     --size-only             skip files that match in size
     --modify-window=NUM     compare mod-times with reduced accuracy
 -T, --temp-dir=DIR          create temporary files in directory DIR
 -y, --fuzzy                 find similar file for basis if no dest file
     --compare-dest=DIR      also compare destination files relative to DIR
     --copy-dest=DIR         ... and include copies of unchanged files
     --link-dest=DIR         hardlink to files in DIR when unchanged
 -z, --compress              compress file data during the transfer
     --compress-level=NUM    explicitly set compression level
     --skip-compress=LIST    skip compressing files with a suffix in LIST
 -C, --cvs-exclude           auto-ignore files the same way CVS does
 -f, --filter=RULE           add a file-filtering RULE
 -F                          same as --filter='dir-merge /.rsync-filter'
                             repeated: --filter='- .rsync-filter'
     --exclude=PATTERN       exclude files matching PATTERN
     --exclude-from=FILE     read exclude patterns from FILE
     --include=PATTERN       don't exclude files matching PATTERN
     --include-from=FILE     read include patterns from FILE
     --files-from=FILE       read list of source-file names from FILE
 -0, --from0                 all *-from/filter files are delimited by 0s
 -s, --protect-args          no space-splitting; only wildcard special-chars
     --address=ADDRESS       bind address for outgoing socket to daemon
     --port=PORT             specify double-colon alternate port number
     --sockopts=OPTIONS      specify custom TCP options
     --blocking-io           use blocking I/O for the remote shell
     --stats                 give some file-transfer stats
 -8, --8-bit-output          leave high-bit chars unescaped in output
 -h, --human-readable        output numbers in a human-readable format
     --progress              show progress during transfer
 -P                          same as --partial --progress
 -i, --itemize-changes       output a change-summary for all updates
     --out-format=FORMAT     output updates using the specified FORMAT
     --log-file=FILE         log what we're doing to the specified FILE
     --log-file-format=FMT   log updates using the specified FMT
     --password-file=FILE    read daemon-access password from FILE
     --list-only             list the files instead of copying them
     --bwlimit=RATE          limit socket I/O bandwidth
     --outbuf=N|L|B          set output buffering to None, Line, or Block
     --write-batch=FILE      write a batched update to FILE
     --only-write-batch=FILE like --write-batch but w/o updating destination
     --read-batch=FILE       read a batched update from FILE
     --protocol=NUM          force an older protocol version to be used
     --iconv=CONVERT_SPEC    request charset conversion of filenames
     --checksum-seed=NUM     set block/file checksum seed (advanced)
 -4, --ipv4                  prefer IPv4
 -6, --ipv6                  prefer IPv6
     --version               print version number
(-h) --help                  show this help (-h is --help only if used alone)

Use "rsync --daemon --help" to see the daemon-mode command-line options.
Please see the rsync(1) and rsyncd.conf(5) man pages for full documentation.
See http://rsync.samba.org/ for updates, bug reports, and answers
rsync error: syntax or usage error (code 1) at main.c(1552) [client=3.1.2]

工作模式

  • 拷贝本地文件

当SRC和DES路径信息都不包含有单个冒号":“分隔符时就启动这种工作模式。如:

rsync -a /data /backup
  • 拷贝本机文件远程机器

使用一个远程shell程序(如rsh、ssh)来实现将本地机器的内容拷贝到远程机器。当DST路径地址包含单个冒号”:“分隔符时启动该模式。如:

rsync -avz *.py <remote-ip>:/backup
  • 拷贝远程文件到本机

使用一个远程shell程序(如rsh、ssh)来实现将远程机器的内容拷贝到本地机器。当SRC地址路径包含单个冒号”:“分隔符时启动该模式。如:

rsync -avz <remote-ip>:/data /backup
  • 从远程rsync服务器中拷贝文件到本地机

当SRC路径信息包含”::“分隔符时启动该模式。如:

rsync -av root@10.10.10.10::www /databack
  • 从本地机器拷贝文件到远程rsync服务器中

当DST路径信息包含”::“分隔符时启动该模式。如:

rsync -av /databack root@10.10.10.10::www
  • 列远程机的文件列表

这类似于rsync传输,不过只要在命令中省略掉本地机信息即可。如:

rsync -v rsync://10.10.10.10/www

rysnc of me

rsync -av -e "ssh -o StrictHostKeyChecking=no -o UserKnownHostsFile=/dev/null" --progress --remove-source-files /data/ root@10.10.10.10:/data >> /tmp/rsync.log
  • -z :表示压缩,会牺牲性能,网络允许的条件下不建议价
  • -e “ssh -o StrictHostKeyChecking=no -o UserKnownHostsFile=/dev/null” :禁用 host key 验证
  • –progress :显示进度
  • –remove-source-files :传完后,删除源文件
rsync -avP --bwlimit=81920  /data/  /data_bak/  --exclude=/data/logs1  --exclude=/data/logs2
  • -a archive mode
  • -v increase verbosity
  • -P same as –partial –progress
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