SSHFS 使用 SSH 协议挂载 Linux 文件系统

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SSHFS(Secure SHell FileSystem) 是一个通过 SSH文件传输协议(SSH File Tran Protocal, SFTP) 挂载远程的文件系统的客户端

介绍

  • SSHFS 内置在 FUSE(用户空间的文件系统) 内核模块,允许非特权用户在不修改内核代码的情况下创建自定义的文件系统

安装

  • CentOS
# epel 源
yum install sshfs
  • Ubuntu
apt-get install sshfs

help

sshfs --help ...
$ sshfs --help
usage: sshfs [user@]host:[dir] mountpoint [options]

general options:
    -o opt,[opt...]        mount options
    -h   --help            print help
    -V   --version         print version

SSHFS options:
    -p PORT                equivalent to '-o port=PORT'
    -C                     equivalent to '-o compression=yes'
    -F ssh_configfile      specifies alternative ssh configuration file
    -1                     equivalent to '-o ssh_protocol=1'
    -o reconnect           reconnect to server
    -o delay_connect       delay connection to server
    -o sshfs_sync          synchronous writes
    -o no_readahead        synchronous reads (no speculative readahead)
    -o sync_readdir        synchronous readdir
    -o sshfs_debug         print some debugging information
    -o cache=BOOL          enable caching {yes,no} (default: yes)
    -o cache_max_size=N    sets the maximum size of the cache (default: 10000)
    -o cache_timeout=N     sets timeout for caches in seconds (default: 20)
    -o cache_X_timeout=N   sets timeout for {stat,dir,link} cache
    -o cache_clean_interval=N
                           sets the interval for automatic cleaning of the
                           cache (default: 60)
    -o cache_min_clean_interval=N
                           sets the interval for forced cleaning of the
                           cache if full (default: 5)
    -o workaround=LIST     colon separated list of workarounds
             none             no workarounds enabled
             [no]rename       fix renaming to existing file (default: off)
             [no]truncate     fix truncate for old servers (default: off)
             [no]buflimit     fix buffer fillup bug in server (default: on)
             [no]fstat        fix fstat for old servers (default: off)
    -o idmap=TYPE          user/group ID mapping (default: none)
             none             no translation of the ID space
             user             only translate UID/GID of connecting user
             file             translate UIDs/GIDs contained in uidfile/gidfile
    -o uidfile=FILE        file containing username:remote_uid mappings
    -o gidfile=FILE        file containing groupname:remote_gid mappings
    -o nomap=TYPE          with idmap=file, how to handle missing mappings
             ignore           don't do any re-mapping
             error            return an error (default)
    -o ssh_command=CMD     execute CMD instead of 'ssh'
    -o ssh_protocol=N      ssh protocol to use (default: 2)
    -o sftp_server=SERV    path to sftp server or subsystem (default: sftp)
    -o directport=PORT     directly connect to PORT bypassing ssh
    -o slave               communicate over stdin and stdout bypassing network
    -o disable_hardlink    link(2) will return with errno set to ENOSYS
    -o transform_symlinks  transform absolute symlinks to relative
    -o follow_symlinks     follow symlinks on the server
    -o no_check_root       don't check for existence of 'dir' on server
    -o password_stdin      read password from stdin (only for pam_mount!)
    -o SSHOPT=VAL          ssh options (see man ssh_config)

FUSE options:
    -d   -o debug          enable debug output (implies -f)
    -f                     foreground operation
    -s                     disable multi-threaded operation

    -o allow_other         allow access to other users
    -o allow_root          allow access to root
    -o auto_unmount        auto unmount on process termination
    -o nonempty            allow mounts over non-empty file/dir
    -o default_permissions enable permission checking by kernel
    -o fsname=NAME         set filesystem name
    -o subtype=NAME        set filesystem type
    -o large_read          issue large read requests (2.4 only)
    -o max_read=N          set maximum size of read requests

    -o hard_remove         immediate removal (don't hide files)
    -o use_ino             let filesystem set inode numbers
    -o readdir_ino         try to fill in d_ino in readdir
    -o direct_io           use direct I/O
    -o kernel_cache        cache files in kernel
    -o [no]auto_cache      enable caching based on modification times (off)
    -o umask=M             set file permissions (octal)
    -o uid=N               set file owner
    -o gid=N               set file group
    -o entry_timeout=T     cache timeout for names (1.0s)
    -o negative_timeout=T  cache timeout for deleted names (0.0s)
    -o attr_timeout=T      cache timeout for attributes (1.0s)
    -o ac_attr_timeout=T   auto cache timeout for attributes (attr_timeout)
    -o noforget            never forget cached inodes
    -o remember=T          remember cached inodes for T seconds (0s)
    -o nopath              don't supply path if not necessary
    -o intr                allow requests to be interrupted
    -o intr_signal=NUM     signal to send on interrupt (10)
    -o modules=M1[:M2...]  names of modules to push onto filesystem stack

    -o max_write=N         set maximum size of write requests
    -o max_readahead=N     set maximum readahead
    -o max_background=N    set number of maximum background requests
    -o congestion_threshold=N  set kernel's congestion threshold
    -o async_read          perform reads asynchronously (default)
    -o sync_read           perform reads synchronously
    -o atomic_o_trunc      enable atomic open+truncate support
    -o big_writes          enable larger than 4kB writes
    -o no_remote_lock      disable remote file locking
    -o no_remote_flock     disable remote file locking (BSD)
    -o no_remote_posix_lock disable remove file locking (POSIX)
    -o [no_]splice_write   use splice to write to the fuse device
    -o [no_]splice_move    move data while splicing to the fuse device
    -o [no_]splice_read    use splice to read from the fuse device

Module options:

[iconv]
    -o from_code=CHARSET   original encoding of file names (default: UTF-8)
    -o to_code=CHARSET	    new encoding of the file names (default: UTF-8)

[subdir]
    -o subdir=DIR	    prepend this directory to all paths (mandatory)
    -o [no]rellinks	    transform absolute symlinks to relative

示例

mkdir /mnt/xiexianbin

sshfs xiexianbin@10.0.0.10:/home/xiexianbin/ /mnt/xiexianbin

sudo sshfs -o allow_other xiexianbin@10.0.0.10:/home/xiexianbin/ /mnt/xiexianbin

# 通过 SSH key 认证
sshfs -o IdentityFile=~/.ssh/id_rsa xiexianbin@10.0.0.10:/home/xiexianbin/ /mnt/xiexianbin

sudo sshfs -o allow_other,IdentityFile=~/.ssh/id_rsa xiexianbin@10.0.0.10:/home/xiexianbin/ /mnt/xiexianbin
  • 开机自动挂载
$ cat /etc/fstab
...
sshfs#xiexianbin@10.0.0.10:/home/xiexianbin/ /mnt/xiexianbin fuse.sshfs defaults 0 0

# sshfs#xiexianbin@10.0.0.10:/home/xiexianbin/ /mnt/xiexianbin fuse.sshfs IdentityFile=~/.ssh/id_rsa defaults 0 0
  • 卸载
umount /mnt/xiexianbin

fusermount -u /mnt/xiexianbin
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